Reverse outlining: This technique is commonly used when you are having trouble organizing your own writing.
Implications: What changes should be implemented as a result of the findings of the work? Problem Proposals What is an abstract? Consider giving your abstract to a colleague working in a separate discipline and ask him or her to read it.
Key words and phrases that quickly identify the content and focus of the work. If your abstract runs too long, either it will be rejected or someone will take a chainsaw to it to get it down to size. This format also stipulates the use of an abstract designed to very briefly summarize the key details contained in a paper without providing too much detail.
The manuscript can then be used as a guide to write the abstract, which serves as a concise summary of your research. Similarly, once your work is published, it is the first section that is examined by readers; in many cases, it is the only section of the manuscript that they will ever read.
If you want to find out more about writing a critique or a review of a work, see the UNC Writing Center handout on writing a literature review. Some view federal agencies, courts, political parties, or economic elites as the agents driving institutional change, but typically these groups acted in response to the leverage brought to bear by the civil rights movement.
There are two main types of abstracts: descriptive and informative. For an abstract of an experimental report: Begin by identifying the problem.