West nile research paper
We developed an individual-level heterogeneous network framework across the USA with the goal of understanding the long-range spatial distribution of WNV. Southam CM. Optimal mosquito season of any location is estimated from monthly average temperature and rainfall data for that location [ 33 ].
The USA had the highest h-index of Lancet Infect Dis. The annual quantity of literature published before followed a low rate of research growth; while the quantity of publications after were published in a stage of rapid development.
Other important susceptible birds, such as American crow were not used because although they are an indicator species high crow mortalitythey are unlikely to spread virus geographically as they are mostly a residential species. J Clin Microbiol.
Mosquitoes west nile virus
Microsoft Excel was used for plotting the charts. In this framework, we proposed three types of distance dispersal kernels: 1 exponential, 2 power-law, and 3 power-law biased by flyway. Findings from this study will provide a holistic picture on WNV-related research which serves as a useful reference for future studies. West Nile virus infection in morbidity and mortality among patients admitted to hospital in southcentral Ontario. Positional cloning of the murine flavivirus resistance gene. Although people of all ages can be affected, elderly and immunocompromised people are most at risk of serious illness. This hybrid elicits a strong and potentially long-lasting humoral immune response in hamsters, and additional trials involving non-human primates have promising results.
We tested this network framework for the best kernel with the human case data and found that simulated results for more than 41 states of 49 states are consistent with the reported WNV cases.
Here, n is the number of nodes in a sub-network and p is the probability to form an edge. Therefore the network does not focus on one long-distance migrating bird species but aggregates all species along the known flyways.
West nile research paper
Through extensive simulation from to , we proposed and tested hypothetical mitigation strategies and found that mosquito population reduction in the infected states and neighboring states is potentially cost-effective. Centers for Disease Control. They were followed by reviews ; 9. To build the network framework, we used the American Robin population density across the contiguous United States. Author summary The underlying pattern of West Nile virus WNV geographic spread across the United States is not completely clear, which is a necessary step for continental or state level mitigation strategies to reduce WNV transmission. Pesticide use for West Nile virus. N Engl J Med. The results illustrated that the study of WNV reveals an overall increasing trend in the total number of scientific publications from to
In each sub-network, we assumed that nodes are connected through Erdos-Renyi n,p random network topology [ 37 ].
based on 91 review