As this longer-term perspective demonstrates, this is not a phenomenon of recent years, rather than has been endemic ever since the Kyoto protocol. But new solutions for adaptation to the new realities of a changed global climate seems inevitable at significant economic costs — which could become the price for a lack of global political leadership.
Examples of these have been added to Table 1. For some of the changes for which charities advocate, we would expect an enormous impact were the advocacy successful.
A second contribution addresses the difficulty of empirically studying the specific impact of technological change because various structural economic forces, which are difficult to disentangle, simultaneously affect the employment structure. Industry Analysis is effectively covered under the Economic heading.
The term PEST has been used regularly in the last 20 years and its true history is difficult to establish. The second pair of cartograms show how individual countries have been contributing to these increases, and to a much smaller extent which countries managed a relative decline in that period.
Strategies of mitigation as well as adaptation to the negative consequences of climate change are eventually a task for national politics.