Sociology and philosophy of gender the examples of influential women

Feminist theory

Provided by: Boundless. Gender, race, class, and other oppressions are all potential omnirelevant categories, though they are not ALL identically salient in every set of social relationships in which inequality is done. The entrance of women into the workforce and into traditionally male roles marked a departure from gender roles due to wartime necessity. Gender Roles In Chile As is the case for many women in the United States and in Europe, many women in Chile feel pressure to conform to traditional gender roles. Development psychologist Erik Erikson describes adolescence as the period during which individuals ponder the questions: who am I and what can I be? A social constructionist view of gender looks beyond categories and examines the intersections of multiple identities and the blurring of the boundaries between essentialist categories. These differences as children cause women to operate from assumptions about communication, and use rules for communication that differ significantly from those endorsed by most men. Associate Professor of Sociology at Occidental College, she rose to prominence as co-founder and contributor to the widely read blog Sociological Images. It was— and continues to be— important to recognize that white women faced a different form of discrimination than working class women of color, who not only had to deal with sexism, but also fought against racism and class oppression. Learning Objectives Describe gender from the view of the conflict perpective Key Takeaways Key Points Conflict theory asserts that social problems occur when dominant groups mistreat subordinate ones, and thus advocates for a balance of power between genders. For example, masculine people expect competition in their friendships. Main article: Gender Gender, according to West and Zimmerman, is not a personal trait; it is "an emergent feature of social situations: both as an outcome of and a rationale for various social arrangements, and as a means of legitimating one of the most fundamental divisions of society.

Girls are expected to conform to stereotypical gendered appearances, as are boys. Nevertheless, the dollar is extremely powerful within its own domain.

Gender is a social construct essay

Contemporary constructionist perspective, as proposed by Fenstermaker and West, proposes treating gender as an activity "doing" of utilizing normative prescriptions and beliefs about sex categories based on situational variables. To assess what daily life is like for women, one must learn the particulars about the cultural and historical moment she occupies. Intersectionality: The idea that various biological, social, and cultural categories— including gender, race, class, and ethnicity— interact and contribute towards systematic social inequality. If the interaction is in danger of ending before an individual wants it to, it can be conserved through several steps. They begin labeling objects as "for girls" or "for boys" and conform to what is expected of them. These identities demonstrate the fluidity of gender, which is so frequently thought to be biological and immutable. Division of labor: A division of labour is the dividing and specializing of cooperative labour into specifically circumscribed tasks and roles. They avoid communicating personal and emotional concerns. The Interactionist Perspective From a symbolic interactionist perspective, gender is produced and reinforced through daily interactions and the use of symbols. The most intense period of socialization is during childhood, when adults who are members of a particular cultural group instruct young children on how to behave in order to comply with social norms. The shoes were impractical and difficult to walk in, but they were both a status symbol as well as a sign of masculinity and power. Scholars of this perspective study how individuals act within society, and believe that meaning is produced through the interactions of individuals. These examples from Sweden, Chile, and Japan hardly scratch the surface of demonstrating some of the extreme variation in gender roles worldwide.

In contrast, feminine people are more likely to communicate weakness and vulnerability. This theory suggests that gender inequalities exist as an efficient way to create a division of labor, or as a social system in which particular segments are clearly responsible for certain, respective acts of labor.

gender roles

These gender roles are "repeatedly reinforced through socialization". However, both genders initiate opposite-gender friendships based on the same factors.

Gender theories in sociology

Read on to learn more about 5 superstar female sociologists. A certain gendered patriarchy turns abstraction into material reality. Transgender individuals are those whose gender identity does not align with their sex organs. Intersectionality suggests that various forms of oppression— such as racism, classism, and sexism — are interrelated to form a system of oppression in which various forms of discrimination intersect. While certain gender roles may have been appropriate in a hunter-gatherer society, conflict theorists argue that the only reason these roles persist is because the dominant group naturally works to maintain their power and status. Historically, gender has been an important principle of Japanese social stratification, but gender differences have varied over time and within social class. Influence of the Enlightenment The feminist voices of the Renaissance never coalesced into a coherent philosophy or movement. One main thread in discussions about gender roles in the United States has been the historical evolution from a single-income family, or a family unit in which one spouse typically the father is responsible for the family income, to a dual-income family, or a family unit in which both spouses generate income. Transgender people have always lived in Australia. Exploring these possibilities may result in abrupt changes in self-presentation as the adolescent chooses or rejects qualities and behaviors, trying to guide the actual self toward the ideal self who the adolescent wishes to be and away from the feared self who the adolescent does not want to be. In contrast, boys are more concerned with establishing and asserting their independence and defining their relation to authority. Until recently, women lost their right to administer their own assets once they were married, with their husbands receiving all of their wealth.

The female-husband tradition preserves patriarchal structure; without an heir, women cannot inherit land or property from their family, but if her wife bears a son, the female wife is allowed to carry on the family name and pass on inheritance to her sons.

Women especially are constrained in the way they view their adulthood even at a young age because of motherhood. West and Fenstermaker conclude that doing gender involves different versions of accountability, depending on women's "relational position" to white men.

Social construction of gender examples

Boys, however, tend to play more competitive team sports with different goals and strategies. Therefore, various forms of oppression do not act independently but are interrelated. The performance of gender varies given the context: time, space, social interaction, etc. Jones believes the performative power to act out gender is extremely useful as a framework, offering new ways to consider images as enactments with embodied subjects rather than inanimate objects for men's viewing pleasure. Feminism has yet to fully embrace transgender inclusion as a feminist cause. Intersectionality: The idea that various biological, social, and cultural categories— including gender, race, class, and ethnicity— interact and contribute towards systematic social inequality. In chapter one of the text, Butler introduces the unification of the terms gender and performativity in stating that "gender proves to be performance—that is, constituting the identity it is purported to be. Provided by: Wikibooks.

Sense of Identity Unlike the conflicting aspects of self-concept, identity represents a coherent sense of self stable across circumstances and including past experiences and future goals. The division of labor works to maximize resources and efficiency. It is the result of socialization, but it also has a biological basis.

functionalist perspective on gender and society

The enactment of gender roles is context dependent — roles are "situated identities" instead of "master identities". Empirical investigations suggest that gender roles are "social constructs that vary significantly across time, context, and culture".

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Social construction of gender