An introduction to the largest ethnic group of kurds with no state to call their own
In one camp it visited, the Kurds had constructed uniform rowhouses, each consisting of two rooms of twelve square meters -- one per family -- and a nine square meter kitchen.
Mardin By most standards, this tent camp is the least desirable of the three refugee settlements. A Shortage of Cash and Work Money for necessities has not been easy to come by.
After initially sustaining a heavy defeat, Ardashir I was successful in subjugating the Kurds. Army War College, an army-funded military research institute. Diyarbakir Diyarbakir, the best of the three camps, is an apartment city of 71 concrete buildings housing 11, refugees.
Bernstein; the vice-chair is Adrian W.
An international delegation visiting two camps near Bakhtaran -- Serias and Rawanzar -- in May , found it possible for the refugees to take casual jobs, but noted that there were few available in the area. The Turks provided them with food, but no tents or blankets for at least a week. Army War College, , p. With the help of friends or families, using smugglers or fake papers, over the past two years hundreds have fled from Iran or Turkey, sometimes to find themselves in an even more precarious situation. In modern times, Syria, Turkey and Iraq have all tried to dilute Kurdish claims to a homeland through massive relocation programs. At least 67 Assyrians who returned to Iraq after joining the Kurdish flight to Turkey are reported missing by their families. As with Turkey, Iran has also short-changed the Kurds relative to other refugees. It is hard to walk anywhere without stepping into a trench.
Turn the bread over and bake for another minute, or until the bread begins to brown around the edges. In contrast to Turkey's rough ride, the Iranian government has received little criticism -- and some commendation 53 -- over its treatment of the Kurdish refugees.
A failed peace accord with the Iraqi government led to another outbreak of fighting in , but an agreement between Iraq and Iran—which had been supporting Kurdish efforts—later that year led to a collapse of Kurdish resistance. Their reputation for military prowess has made them much in demand as mercenaries in many armies. Like Iraq, Turkey has forcibly emptied scores of Kurdish villages, allegedly for security reasons. There were no schools for the children in two of the camps for more than two years. Other accounts have given figures several times higher. Another member of that camp spent two months in the jail for organizing a hunger strike to demand a permit to leave the camp. The international group visiting in May reported that to leave "a permission is required Around , Kurds were forced to move southwards to Urfa and then westwards to Aintab and Marasch. Many families and tribes straddle the border and have been generous in helping the refugees. The government forbade the refugees from setting up their own schools in Kurdish, though at one camp it acquiesced after the Kurds proceeded on their own. Like those in the Mardin camp, the refugees in Diyarbakir opened a school for their children in May As a result, Afghan refugees are a familiar sight in almost every major city in central and eastern Iran, where they provide an important source of unskilled labour. You can also work the flour in by hand, if you do not have a food processor. Their depictions of conditions are often at variance and far from complete. By November , refugee teachers, using 17 tented classrooms, were giving classes for more than 2, students, with the knowledge of the Turkish camp authorities.
The authors interviewed more than Kurdish refugees who fled to Turkey. The sultan Saladinbest known to the Western world for exploits in the Crusadesepitomizes the Kurdish military reputation.
It costs 2, Turkish Lira -- about 60 U. He taught his son and some neighboring children at home. Baghdad responded vengefully to the end of the uprising, deporting someKurds -- not just the peshmerga 6 families -- to southern Iraq. Burkhalter, Washington Director; Susan Osnos, press director.
The Turkish government provides free health care. The Ayyubid dynasty lasted until when the Ayyubid sultanate fell to Mongolian invasions. Just as Turkey denied that its Kurds were only "mountain Turks," Bulgaria claimed that its Turks were only restoring their ancient Bulgarian names after being forcibly "Islamicized" under the Ottoman empire. Indeed, Kurdistan after the war was more fragmented than before, and various separatist movements arose among Kurdish groups. The study states that: Iraq was blamed for the Halabja attack, even though it was subsequently brought out that Iran, too, had used chemicals in this operation, and it seemed likely that it was the Iranian bombardment that actually killed the Kurds. In another example, a Kurdish medic treated dozens of chemical weapons victims from Saosenan, a Kurdish village near the Iranian border, shortly before the attack on Halabja: In this village, or the inhabitants died. Operating mainly from eastern Anatolia, PKK fighters engaged in guerrilla operations against government installations and perpetrated frequent acts of terrorism.
based on 29 review